Lowland beech and yew woodland includes a number of similar woodland types, where beech is the common factor. They occur on both acidic and calcareous freely draining soils. Oak is a common associate on acidic soils, and ash and whitebeam on calcareous soils.
Choose which trees to plant and in what relative proportions based on:
- The woodland types that would regenerate naturally on a site, based on local conditions such as soil pH, nutrient levels, hydrology, and climate.
- The appropriate frequencies of species in a given community.
- Availability of appropriate management both during establishment and subsequently, which would aid community development.
The Forestry Commission can advise on these factors locally (see contact pages for more details).
Large, new woods should include areas of open ground as this aids structural diversity and encourages high biodiversity.
Size and proximity to other woodlands are important:
- Larger woodlands (ideally > 5 ha) support and retain more woodland wildlife.
- Small woodland blocks can be enhanced by scrub established around the perimeters to reduce wind penetration to the interior.
Adding to existing woods or creating new blocks close by will increase the potential for species colonisation. Edges should be designed avoid hard edges between woodland and open ground, and managed to maintain it.
Woodland creation is not appropriate where existing habitats of value occur, or that have the potential to be restored to higher priority habitats – eg rarer or more threatened habitats, or where it will create barriers for wildlife movement between existing habitats.
Several methods can be used. When deciding on which to use, assess available resources, the local landscape and the site objectives.
Natural colonisation will suit sites adjacent to existing semi-natural woodland.
Preparation of a rough seedbed will often enhance germination and take of new trees. Only use a (low fertility) thin topsoil where exposed substrates are excessively impoverished or do not offer rooting opportunities. Compaction and waterlogging can severely affect tree growth. These factors can be improved, for example by subsoiling.
Pioneer species, such as birch can develop a dense scrub cover relatively quickly (over 10 years). Thereafter natural succession will see the balance gradually change as new species colonise. This can take a very long time, but as this is a natural process, the value for wildlife will remain.
Benefits of natural colonisation are:
- Low cost – although rabbit fencing and deer control may be needed.
- Natural composition – of species adapted to the conditions found on the site.
- Natural distribution of trees – natural look to the landscape as opposed to planting in rows.
- Promotes conservation of local biodiversity.
- Slow to develop full assemblage of species (but valuable in the meantime)
- Can look untidy during establishment
Tree and shrub planting
This would be appropriate where natural colonisation is unlikely, eg where it is far from existing woodland, or establishment is required especially quickly.
Whatever the planting method used it is important to ensure that:
- Trees and shrubs are planted in loose friable soil to ensure adequate water storage.
- Rootstock is always protected from desiccation.
- Competing rank grass and other plants are managed for 4-5 years (see below).
When preparing the soils, redress any compaction where necessary by ripping.
Do not improve soil fertility - if soil fertility is extremely low then consider other habitats such as heathland or use natural colonisation over a long time period. Most woodland soils are infertile, especially in phosphorus. Tree establishment depends on root penetration and low competition. Poorer soils help to reduce competition from grasses and herbaceous vegetation, and develop a diverse ground flora.
Planting patterns and spacing
The planting scheme used at the outset will be a major influence on resulting woodland structure.
- Plant naturalistically, not in straight lines - this leads to wind tunnelling and a simplified structure of limited value for wildlife.
- Sparse planting leads to the development of more natural woodlands than the dense planting traditional in commercial silviculture.Wider spacing involves fewer trees, lower planting and lower maintenance costs. It produces bushy trees and a slower closing canopy, as well as reducing weeding during establishment, and delaying thinning for several decades.
» at an average spacing of 3.6 m, 722 trees are required per ha.
Closer spacing, results in taller trees, earlier canopy closure and requires earlier thinning, otherwise a simple structure develops lacking many of the features needed by birds and other wildlife. Closer spacing than 2m should not be considered.
» at an average spacing of 2 m, 2,500 trees are required per ha.
- Randomised spacings, where some areas are denser and some sparser, reflecting species and topography, creates woodland that is more naturalistic.
- Plant slower-growing canopy trees, either singly or in small clusters, at varying spacing of 2 – 10 metres. Enhance structural diversity by planting in between with shrubs and rapid-growing, short-lived trees, or by allowing natural regeneration.
- Around 40% trees to 60% shrubs throughout the planting scheme will create structural diversity.
- Plant shrubs randomly, some in tight clusters forming thickets, others more widely spaced; some clusters of mixed species, others of single species, depending on soils and topography. Slow-growing species should not be planted in association with faster-growing, competitive species.
- Bramble frequently appears naturally; it is valuable nesting and foraging cover for birds and nectar source. It can help to protect saplings from browsing by herbivores like deer.
- Larger planting schemes should include changes in composition to match variation in soils and slope.
The use of fast growing nurse species to help soil formation, and to add shelter and warmth is common, but some species can be competitive so follow-up management to progressively remove unwanted nurse species will be required after 5-7 years. Use nurse species that are not competitive and that are desirable within the target woodland community. Suitable native nurse species include birch and Scots pine.
Where nursery-grown trees are used, whips (small, bare-rooted stock) generally out-perform standards. They are usually more cost effective as prices range from £0.50 to £1.00 per unit, depending on species.
Planting should be undertaken during the dormancy period – November to February – avoiding frosty weather. Roots must not dry out. Heel unplanted stock in until it can be planted out. One person can plant 800-1,500 whips a day by hand.
Where they occur, protection from deer and rabbits is essential. Tree shelters are costly but increase survival rates, aid early growth and reduce the need for weed control. Fencing costs are high: ca £5 m-1 for rabbit fencing, ca £10 m-1 for deer fencing, but reusable types are available. Remove tree guards and fencing once the crop is well established (5+ years).
New plantings will need weed control for the first 4-5 years to limit competition. This need not be rigorous, as occasional losses will create useful gaps. Options include: biodegradable mats fitted around base of tree; wood chip or bark mulch application; glyphosate application once or twice a year; mowing or tillage. Mulching is effective but large supplies would be needed for large schemes. This and matting help to retain soil moisture.
Ground flora establishment
A woodland ground flora will colonise very slowly. Introduction is only required where colonising is unlikely.
Woodland topsoil will include seeds and root material as well as fungal spores and mycelia, and can therefore be an effective means of introducing ground flora. Where available, this can be applied in clumps from which vegetation will spread over time. Permission will be required from Natural England where the donor site is an SSSI.
Alternatively, seeds can be collected and sown. Otherwise, once trees and shrubs have developed, a surrogate woodland flora will develop as taller grasses and plants are suppressed by shade. This will continue to develop.
Scrub is an important component of wildlife rich landscapes in its own right, and adds to the interface between woodland and open ground.
Natural colonisation of scrub will develop a balanced age structure, spatial distribution and species diversity to develop. Several species, e.g. blackthorn, are ready colonists of suitable ground. Where time is not a constraint, this should be the favoured option.
Once established, the structure may need to be maintained by rotational cutting, and thinning.
Planting will be required where natural colonisation is not an option. Use only locally native species appropriate to the local conditions. Use similar techniques as for trees (see above), designed to give a varied and complex structure, with glades for a high edge to area ratio.
Long-term management can involve various measures at various stages, including:
- Removal of nurse species.
- Thinning and coppicing of pioneer species to develop a complex structure.
- Filling in gaps where plantings have failed. However, consider the value of keeping gaps open.
- Maintaining rides to retain open ground and edge for wildlife such as butterflies.
- Retaining both standing and fallen deadwood where it occurs. This is important for a range of invertebrates and hole nesting birds (e.g. woodpeckers).
- Management of deer and grazing. Deer numbers must be kept low to ensure regeneration and structure are maintained. Low intensity grazing can be beneficial particularly to ground flora.
Buckley, G P and Knight, D J (1989) The feasibility of woodland reconstruction. In G P Buckley (ed) Biological Habitat Reconstruction, pp 171-88. Bellhaven Press.
Francis, J L, Morton, A J and Boorman, L A (1992) The establishment of ground flora species in recently planted woodland. Aspects of Applied Biology 29: 171-78.
Hodge, S J (1995) Creating and managing woodlands around towns. Forestry Commission Handbook 11. HMSO, London.
Hopkins, J J (1996) Scrub ecology and conservation. British Wildlife 8(1): 28-36.
Moffat, A and McNeill, J (1994) Reclaiming disturbed land for forestry. Forestry Commission Bulletin 110. HMSO, London.
Peterken, G F (1993) Woodland conservation and management. Second Edition. Chapman and Hall, London.
Rodwell, J S and Patterson, G S (1994) Creating new native woodland. Forestry Commission Bulletin 112. HMSO, London.
Relevant case study
We currently have no case studies for this habitat type. If you know of one and would like it to feature on the site contact us.
The information set out within this advisory sheet in no way constitutes legal or regulatory advice and is based on circumstances and facts as they existed at the time Nature After Minerals compiled this document. Should there be a change in circumstances or facts, then this may adversely affect any recommendations, opinions or findings contained within this document